This book analyses the importance of maize worldwide and the special importance for Mexico as a centre of origin and diversity (COD). By adopting a comparative approach, the analysis focuses on how developed and developing countries handle imports of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO’s). It also analyses the impact that GM maize imports from the USA may have in Mexico as COD of maize. This book illustrates the process of economic liberalization in Mexico from the 1980’s until the inception of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1994. It provides a descriptive and analytical insight into the Mexican legal framework of biotechnology and biosafety. Finally, it outlines the problems of complying with both environmental, and trade commitments.